The history of Alexandria dates back to the city's founding, by Alexander the Great It was the seat of the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt, and quickly became one of the greatest cities of the Hellenistic world second only to Rome in size and wealth.

It fell to the Arabs in 641 AD, and a new capital of Egypt, Fustat, was founded on the Nile. After Alexandria's status as the country's capital ended, it fell into a long decline, which by the late Ottoman period, had seen it reduced to little more than a small fishing village.

The city was revived by Muhammad Ali as a part of his early industrialization program. The current city is Egypt's leading port, a commercial, tourism and transportation center, and the heart of a major industrial area where refined petroleum, asphalt, cotton textiles, processed food, paper, plastics and styrofoam are produced.

Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great in 332 BC (the exact date is disputed) as (Aleks√°ndreia). Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. Ancient accounts are extremely numerous and varied, and much influenced by subsequent developments.

One of the more sober descriptions, given by the historian Arrian, tells how Alexander undertook to lay out the city's general plan, but lacking chalk or other means, resorted to sketching it out with grain.

Alexandria Places

  • Montaza Palace, in Montaza
  • Ras el-Tin Palace, in Ras el-Tin
  • Presidential Palace, in Maamoura

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